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Military

Austrian soldiers

soldier is a person who performs services in the service of an army of a recognized state , usually the country .

If a person mentioned above is not employed by a recognized state, one speaks of a mercenary , warrior , rebel and in some cases even a terrorist ; organizations such persons usually called militia . To differentiate non-military and civilian indicated. There is a gray area between military and civilian, of which the Geneva Conventions to clarify try.

If a soldier has volunteered speaking of a professional soldier . If they are required to perform military service by their national legislation , it is called a conscript . Every Dutch military falls under the Dutch military discipline .

Military can (as adjective ) also mean "of the armed forces."

Recently come to denote the number of soldiers, the word troops in use.

 

Content

  [ Hide ] 

  • 1Female Soldiers
    • 1.1M Departments
    • 1.2Diversity Policy
  • 2Military hierarchy
    • 2.1Belgian military hierarchy
    • 2.2Dutch military hierarchy
    • 2.3Military degrees (Belgium)
    • 2.4Ranks and positions (The Netherlands)
  • 3References

 

Female soldiers [ edit ]

In most Western countries, like the Netherlands and Belgium, there are both male and female soldiers. The Belgian army was not until 1975 the first female soldiers hired.

Female Departments [ processing ]

The Dutch air force already since 1 november 1951 female soldiers serving in the Luva , the Air Force Vrouwenafdeling . Also, other Services had similar women's sections Milva , the Military Vrouwenafdeling and Marva , the Marine Vrouwenafdeling . These departments were on 1 January 1982 formally abolished and integrated into the respective armed forces.

Diversity policy [ processing ]

Nowadays women are as good as men to the defense staff of the Dutch army. In recruitment campaigns women are also addressed. This Defense conducts diversity policy made compulsory by the government out. So the military would become a more faithful reflection of society. Also, people are attracted to a non-Dutch background to play a role in the Dutch army.

Military hierarchy [ processing ]

The military hierarchy is divided into categories.

Belgian military hierarchy [ edit ]

  • The highest category is that of the officers . These in turn are subdivided into three subcategories, namely the Supreme Officers , the Head Officers and Lower officers .
  • The middle class is that of the non-commissioned officers . They are also (in Belgium) divided into sub-categories, namely the Main Non-commissioned officers , the Adopt non-commissioned officers and the Lower NCOs .
  • The lowest category is that of volunteers divided into host volunteers and lower vrijwillligers .

Dutch military hierarchy [ edit ]

  • The highest category is that of the officers . These in turn are subdivided into three subcategories, namely the flag officer / general officers , the chief officers and subalterns .
  • The middle class is that of the non-commissioned officers .
  • The lowest category is that of men

Military degrees (Belgium) [ edit ]

1rightarrow green.svg See List of military ranks of the Belgian Armed Forces for the editorial on this subject.

Walks of life (The Netherlands), [ processing ]

1rightarrow green.svg See List of military ranks of the Dutch Armed Forces for the editorial on this subject.

 

Defense Belgium

Defence
Coats of arms of Belgium Military Forces.svg
foundation October 1830
country Belgium flag Belgium
Number 30 174 
Reserve: 1,673
commanders King Filip van België
Defense Minister: 
Steven Vandeput ( N-VA ) 
Chief General Staff: 
Marc Compernol

With Defense ( French : La Défense ), the army of Belgium appointed. It is in fact a professional army, because the service is on 5 February 1995 suspended. The army employs 30 174 staff members and 1,673 reservists. Commander's King Filip van België , Minister of Defense since 2014 Steven Vandeput ( N-VA ). The Chief of Defense , the Chief of the General Staff since July 13, 2016 General Marc Compernol .

Defense consists of the following components:

  • The Navy put a fleet consisting of frigates, minesweepers, a command and support ship, a training ship and a ship for oceanographic research. The Navy undertakes contracts as demining, patrols and humanitarian operations. The Navy has an expertise in minesweeping.
  • The Air Component (Air Force) to protect the national territory and that of allies. Worldwide supplies for peacekeeping efforts and provides stability through military diplomacy. For this purpose, the Air Component features F-16 -gevechtsvliegtuigen, transport aircraft ( C-130 , Airbus ), and Agusta A109 helicopters.
  • The Land Component (Army) is a Light and Medium Brigade. The Land Component includes armored vehicles of the type Dingo -II.
  • The medical component is active in the military operations of Defense abroad and relief operations inside and outside Belgium. The medical component is specialized in the treatment of burns , especially in the Military Hospital Queen Astrid in Lower-Over-Hembeek .

The Belgian army was established after Belgium became independent fought in October 1830. Since then the army in the First World War , the Second World War and the Cold War ( Korean War and occupation of the Federal Republic of Germany ). The Belgian army is integrated into the NATO and participated in operations in Bosnia , Somalia , Kosovo , Lebanon , Libya and Afghanistan . The elite unit of the paratroopers ' s active several times in central Africa . During their deployment as a peacekeeper in Rwanda were 10 Belgian paratroopers disarmed and killed in 1994.

 

Content

  [ Hide ] 

  • 1History
    • 1.1Formation
    • 1.2Early history
    • 1.3First World War
      • 1.3.1State of the Belgian army in 1914
      • 1.3.2The Belgian Army in World War I
    • 1.4Interbellum
  • 2Basic
  • 3Staff Chefs
  • 4Miscellaneous
  • 5Education and study
  • 6See also
  • 7External link

 

History [ edit ]

Formation [ processing ]

When Belgium split off from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1830-31 was expected that Belgium could include a role as a neutral buffer state between the great powers France , the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Prussia . This makes the need for a costly standing army could be avoided, so that could be primarily based on a smaller part-time militia as the existing 'Vigilante' (fr: Garde Civique ). However, it soon became clear that Belgium would need a regular army. The basis for recruitment was "selective conscription" in which exemptions could be bought. This meant in practice that only a quarter of the young men did effective service, the majority of which consisted of the poorer sections of the population.

Early history [ edit ]

Soldiers of the Corps Expeditionnaire Belge during the Franco-Mexican War .

As part of the national policy of neutrality, the Belgian army was deployed in the 19th century as an essentially defensive power with fortresses on the Dutch, German and French borders. Due to problems with recruitment remained the army under its intended strength of 20 000 men. In 1868 tougher legislation was adopted on the service. During the Franco-Prussian War in 1870 a general mobilization was proclaimed for almost a whole year, which emerged big problems with training and structural weaknesses. A State Security makeshift military intelligence, and the presence of Belgian units along the border could however make sure that the battle never was continued until the Belgian territory. [1]

Until the end of the 1890s the Belgian army was dependent on a system of selective conscription, at a time when most European countries had introduced universal conscription to the Prussian model. In Belgium recruits were selected through a lottery system . However, those who were selected were able to escape conscription by paying a substitute. [2] This system favored the well-off and was taken off in other countries as inefficient and unpatriotic. For the squad took the service for eight years, followed by five years as a reservist. [3]

The army of the Papal States , which was based in Rome, from 1860 consisted of a unit of battalion -size known as Tirailleurs Franco-Belges (Franco-Belgian sharpshooters). The soldiers of this unit were recruited among volunteers of both countries. In 1861 the unit was transformed into the Papal Zouaves . In 1871 the unit fought with the French side of the Franco-Prussian War . [4]

In 1864 it became Corps Expeditionnaire Belge (known as the Belgian Legion ) established operations in Mexico . The purpose of this 1500-strong unit was to serve as a bodyguard of Belgian Empress Charlotte . It consisted mainly of volunteers from the Belgian army. Mexico made the Belgian Legion part of the imperial armed forces, before she returned to Belgium and was disbanded in March 1867. [5]

In 1885, the Force Publique created (Public Wehrmacht) to serve as a military garrison and police in the Belgian Congo , then directly into the hands of King Leopold II . At the start this unit consisted of several European mercenaries. When Congo came in 1908 under the administration of the Belgian state as a colony colonial Force includes Belgian officers.

Early 20th century, because of the discomfort of repeated crises between Germany and France, the Belgian army was reformed for the first time on a large scale. In 1909 the conscript system was abolished and a general staff. The latter had their hands full with the Agadir Crisis of Agadir in 1911. [6] In 1913, compulsory and universal conscription was established in Belgium. This increased the force to 33,000 troops (in peacetime), which could be increased only by a general mobilization to 120 500 men. In 1834 the Royal Military Academy was founded, followed by the creation of an Ecole d'Application and Ecole de Guerre for the training of the military staff. One of the innovations which the Belgian army had pioneered the training of a corps of specialized officers who handled the financial affairs, human resources and general administration. When the army greatly expanded in 1913, there was soon a shortage of trained staff officers. [7]

War [ edit ]

State of the Belgian army in 1914 [ edit ]

A Belgian unit having machine-gun in 1914

On the eve of the First World War was the Belgian Army of 19 infantry regiments (board, hunters on foot regiment Carabiniers-grenadiers), 10 cavalry regiments (guides, lancers and hunters on horseback) and 8 artillery units (mounted, field and fortress artillery). Supported troops consisted of engineers , gendarmerie , fortress troops, train guards and vigilantes. The seven divisions of the field army had to form a mobile force while the 65 000 troops a fortress garrison were the key forts around Antwerp , Liege and Namur . These fortresses were built from 1859 in stages. However, in 1914, were not finished all the forts. Despite these forts were well designed to nineteenth-century standards, but this proved outpaced development of heavy howitzers . [8]

Belgian troops during the Battle of the Frontiers in 1914

Belgian artillery in 1914

Belgian troops in September 1914 when fighting in Tienen

The ski village Field, part of the Theorem of Antwerp , in Sint-Katelijne-Waver was completed in 1912

The Belgian Army in World War I [ edit ]

Belgian riflemen during the defense of Liege in August 1914

1rightarrow green.svg See Belgium in World War I for the editorial on this subject.

When World War I broke out in August 1914, the Belgian army was in the midst of a restructuring. As a result, and was only twenty percent of men mobilized by the rapid occupation of Belgium and incorporated into the armed forces. Eventually it went to 350 000 men, all took a third of this number does not directly participate in the fighting.

Belgium was invaded by surprise by the Imperial German Army that about 600 000 men was strong. The small, poorly equipped Belgian army of 117 000 men the German attack, however, could hold Liege for ten days. The Belgian army fought between the forts and with the support of these forts. This strategy had the Napoleonic concept of a vanguard which cuts off a portion of the hostile forces of the bulk of the enemy force. [9] The French authorities and the French public welcomed the Belgian resistance, who had not expected the Germans. The Belgians could effectively delay the Germans and the French armies German attacks at the First Battle of the Marne could withstand.

After the battle of haelen , where the German cavalry and infantry support was defeated by some Belgian divisions, the Belgian army holds the German troops attached to the Theorem of Antwerp . After two months of fighting, the Belgian army retreated behind the Iron . The decisive Battle of the Yser was won with the help of the French and the English, relying on this inundation by the Belgian genius .

Four years guarded the Belgian army, led by King Albert I , the left wing of the Allied front between Nieuwpoort and Ypres . The Belgians get help from the Triple Entente , but will not participate in the major Allied offensives, which were too expensive, according to the king (financially and in terms of manpower). In 1916 the number was Belgian armored cars moved Iron Front to Russia to assist the Russian Empire. [10]

In Africa helped a Belgian colonial company in the occupation of the German colony of Togoland . The Congolese Force Publique played a major role in the East African campaign against the German forces in German East Africa , where more than 12 000 askari 's fought led by Belgian officers in the Allied offensive in February 1916. [11] The greatest contribution to Africa was the capture of Tabora in September 1916 by troops led by General Charles Tombeur .

After four years of war in Belgium, was the Belgian army May 26, 1918 from 166 000 men, of whom 141 974 active fighting. The army consisted of twelve infantry divisions and one cavalry division. The army had 129 aircraft. From September the Belgian army took part in the Allied offensive to victory on November 11, 1918.

Interbellum [ processing ]

Fort Eben-Emael was part of the Fortified Position Liège (PFL) and was completed in 1935

After the armistice with Germany in 1918, the Belgian government wanted to continue the defensive strategy in 1914. There was little used at the acquisition of tanks and aircraft for the military, but it was heavily invested in the defense of the forts of Liege and Antwerp . This happened despite the fact that had proved ineffective fortifications during World War although they were strongly supported by artillery and infantry. Tanks according were added to infantry units so as to form a homogeneous linear defensive front. In the German armies of the 30s, however, specific tank units established. During the interwar period the Belgian army used the airport Haren , which was built by the Germans during the First World War.

The size of the Belgian army after World War limited twelve divisions in 1923 to only four divisions in 1926. The army consisted almost entirely of conscripts who served only thirteen months to go to the reserves. [12]

Until 1936 Belgium was allied with the Third French Republic and the United Kingdom , then Belgium was again neutral. This despite the fact that Adolf Hitler three years before the seizure of power in Germany and the reoccupation of the Rhineland by Germany on Saturday, March 7th, 1936 (contrary to the Locarno Treaty ).

The Belgian army will gain an idea of the strength of the new German army, the Wehrmacht , during the invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939. King Leopold III announced the general mobilization on which 650,000 Belgians were mobilized.

Basic [ processing ]

The following table contains basic information:

Military manpower - military age: 18 years old (2010)
Military manpower - availability: Men 18-49: 2,436,736 (2010/2005), 
women 18-49: 2,369,463 (2010/2005)
Military manpower - ready for military service: Men 18-49: 1,998,003 (2010/2005), 
women 18-49: 1,940,918 (2010/2005)
Military manpower reaching military age annually: Men: 64 263 (2005), 
women 61 402 (2005)
Military expenditures: € 3.4 billion (2008)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP : 1.4% (FY01 / 02)

Staff Chefs [ processing ]

1rightarrow green.svg See Chief of Defense (Belgium) for the editorial on this subject.
  • 1995 - 2002: Admiral Willy Herteleer
  • 2003 - 2009: General August Van Daele
  • 2009 - 2012: General Charles-Henri Delcour
  • 2012 - 2016: General aviator Gerard Van Caelenberge
  • 2016 - present: General Marc Compernol

Varia [ processing ]

The Belgian army is the only one in the world that was authorized by royal decree reinforced by the London be allowed to parade streets. In addition, the British king inaugurated its cousin the Belgian king, to date this Royal Decree will be honored each year with the so-called Belgian Cenotaph. [13]

 

 

Defense (defense)

Defensive Wall in Avila

Defense is the government defending its territory against a hostile country that territory or part attempt to confiscate it. For this purpose, the government may use passive defense or active defense.

A passive defense [ processing ]

A passive defense consists of defensive walls, fences, ditches and the like. These agents were especially effective in time for the fighters . Thus were castles provided with a moat . When the drawbridge was raised, the potential for an enemy was hardly possible to enter the castle.

Active Defense [ edit ]

For active defense is a public use of military force . Usually an army divided into army , navy and air force , sometimes supplemented with other Services.

Defense industry [ edit ]

The defense industry is global industry and trade , which weapons and military technology and produces and sells. [1] It consists of the government and commercial industry , involved in research, development, production and maintenance of military equipment, equipment and facilities. Products include guns , ammunition , missiles , military aircraft , military vehicles , ships , electronic systems, and more. The defense industry also raises important effort in research and development.

United States Department of Defense

Department of Defense
United States Department of Defense Seal.svg
The Pentagon, headquarters of the Ministry
The Pentagon, headquarters of the Ministry
Position holders
minister James Mattis
Minister Robert O. Work
History
Established September 18 1947
Precursor (s) Department of War 
Department of the Navy
general
country Flag of United States United States
Address Pentagon , Arlington Virginia
Flag of Virginia.svg
 
official website
Portal  portal Icon   US 
Politics

The United States Department of Defense , often abbreviated to DoD , the US Department of Defense. It controls the US forces , and is housed in the Pentagon . It is headed by the Defense Minister .

 

Content

  [ Hide ] 

  • 1History
  • 2Organization
  • 3Command Structure
  • 4External link

 

History [ edit ]

Until after the end of the Second World War, two ministries were involved in the political leadership of the US armed forces: in 1789 created US Department of War , and in 1798 founded US Department of the Navy , the successor to the Board of Admiralty ( 1780 ) .

The experience of the Second World War made it clear that the rivalry between the two ministries had an adverse impact on the effectiveness of military operations. On July 26 1947 signed president Harry Truman to the National Security Act of 1947 , the political leadership of the armed forces were unified into one department called the "National Military Establishment". The new department included the US Department of War (renamed US Department of the Army ), the US Department of the Navy , the Chiefs of Staff and a newly established US Department of the Air Force . The prime minister of Defense James V. Fores Tall , who 17 september 1947 joined. The name of the ministry was soon shortened to NME, which was pronounced "en-em-ee". Because it sounded too much like the word "enemy" (enemy), the name of the ministry was October August 1949 changed to the current name "US Department of Defense."

Organization [ edit ]

DOD 2005.svg

The Department includes the following organizations:

  • the departments fighting force components
    • US Department of the Army , which is the United States Army (Army).
    • US Department of the Navy , which includes United States Navy (Navy) and the United States Marine Corps (Marine Corps)
    • US Department of the Air Force , which include the United States Air Force (Air Force)
  • The nine "Unified Combatant Commands". These commanders with their staffs, who are in command of the combined US military forces in their part of the world or in their functional specialty.
    • regional Commands
      • Central Command (CENTCOM), the regional command over all US forces in the Middle East , Central Asia and East Africa . CENTCOM headquarters in Tampa , Florida .
      • European Command (EUCOM), the regional command of all US forces in Europe , Turkey , largely in terms of the former Soviet Union , and Africa except for the eastern part of the continent covered by CENTCOM. The headquarters is in Stuttgart in Germany .
      • Northern Command (NORTHCOM), the regional command of all US forces in the region of the United States on the North American continent (except Alaska . Its headquarters are in Colorado Springs , Colorado .
      • Pacific Command (PACOM), the regional command over all US forces in the whole area of the Pacific , including Hawaii , Alaska , most of Asia and Australia . Its headquarters are in Hawaii .
      • Southern Command (SOUTHCOM), the regional command over all US forces in Central America , South America and the Caribbean . The headquarters is in Miami .
    • functional Commands
      • Special Operations Command (SOCOM), responsible for all special operations (operations in enemy territory) of all US forces anywhere in the world.
      • Strategic Command (STRATCOM), responsible for all nuclear weapons .
      • Transportation Command (TRANSCOM), responsible for transporting troops and equipment.
      • Joint Forces Command (JFCOM), the only command that is not directly involved in military operations. JFCOM studying new ways to improve cooperation between the force components through research and education . Headquartered in Norfolk , Virginia .
  • Joint Chiefs of Staff , a group consisting of the heads of the Armed Forces, chaired by the Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff , the highest military position in the United States.
  • Office of the Secretary of Defense - this includes distributed a number of non-military organizations DOD Field Activities that support military personnel (eg human resources), and the so-called Defense Agencies that provide services to support the armed forces. Known Defense Agencies are:
    • NSA - abbreviated NSA interception of foreign communications
    • DIA - abbreviated to DIA, the Defense Department Intelligence
    • National Reconnaissance Office - deals with satellite spying
    • DARPA , the agency that in 1969 the ARPANET project undertook that laid the foundation for today's Internet
  • Inspector General , responsible for military justice

In time of war, the Defense Department will also command of the United States Coast Guard , the Coast Guard , which normally include the US Department of Homeland Security is. The Coast Guard was last militarized in World War II, although she was then in several military operations in question.

The Department budget is about $ 425 billion, equivalent to about $ 1,600 per capita. In addition, tens of billions of dollars are currently approved by the US Congress for special purposes.

Command Structure [ processing ]

The command structure of the Defense Department is governed by the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 .

Remarkably, the heads of the force components, the Chiefs of Staff , play no role in the command structure. They are responsible for their part of the preparedness of the armed forces, and serve as advisers to the Secretary of Defense and the President.

For military operations anywhere optimally coordinate world commanders have each Unified Combatant Command , the military command of all the force components within their territory or functional specialty.

Unified Combatant Commands under direct command of the Minister of Defense. The US president, according to the Constitution of the United States considered the commander in chief , the supreme commander of all armed forces. The Joint Chiefs of Staff have only an advisory role.

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